However, the men who weren’t expecting physiological arousal as a function of the injection were more likely to report that they experienced euphoria or anger as a function of their assigned confederate’s behavior. The second approach describes the non-cognitive process in a very similar way, but defends the idea that all emotions are non-cognitive. Each of these four theories explains the order of events that occur when an emotion is present. Cannon didn’t agree with several aspects of the James-Lange theory of emotion. Nussbaum believes that this can be demonstrated by considering the consequences of having the requisite mental states while not having a bodily response: There usually will be bodily sensations and changes involved in grieving, but if we discovered that my blood pressure was quite low during this whole episode, or that my pulse rate never went above sixty, there would not, I think, be the slightest reason to conclude that I was not grieving. The five appraisal components are described as follows: Just like the judgment theorists, Roseman and the other appraisal theorists say that these appraisals do not have to be deliberate, or even something of which the individual is consciously aware. And for our purposes, we're going to discuss four different theories of emotion. In R. Harré (Ed.). There are definitely more than three theories of emotions. November 2016; DOI: 10.1002/9781118574003.wattso012. A consequence of this view is that without a bodily response there cannot be an emotion. Two observations demonstrate some of the motivation for the cognitive position. 62–63; see also Roseman and Smith, 2001, p. 6). As Solomon says, “by ‘judgment’, I do not necessarily mean ‘deliberative judgment’ … One might call such judgments ‘spontaneous’ as long as ‘spontaneity’ isn’t confused with ‘passivity'” (1977, p. 46). Emotions as judgements of value and importance. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. Over time, several different theories of emotion, shown in Figure 2, have been proposed to explain how the various components of emotion interact with one another. Social functionalism and the evolution of emotions. Table 2. The cognitive theories contend that the early part of the emotion process includes the manipulation of information and so should be understood as a cognitive process. How would you describe how your arousal manifested itself physically? The two most well-known cognitive theories are the two-factor and the cognitive-mediational theories of emotion. James-Lange Theory 2. Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity. Zajonc asserted that some emotions occur separately from or prior to our cognitive interpretation of them, such as feeling fear in response to an unexpected loud sound (Zajonc, 1998). Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Catherine Lutz translates fago as “compassion/love/sadness” and claims that it is unlike any single western emotion (1988). Some examples are: anger and disgust mixing to form contempt; fear and sadness mixing to form despair; and with regard to levels of intensity, annoyance is a milder form of anger, which is itself a milder form of rage. A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications. Griffiths also suggests that there is a separate affect program for each of several emotions: surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and joy (1997, p. 97). The standard contexts are evolutionary, social and internal. As an early contribution, Roseman’s theory is in some ways simpler than more recent cognitive appraisal theories and so will serve as a good introduction. Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process (1977), and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman’s account into his own theory of the emotions (1997). In this example, fear is the mental state caused by feedback from the body (that is, the perception of the bodily changes). Discusses the James-Lange, or discharge theory of the nature of emotion. According to Damasio, these feelings are crucial in helping us make decisions and choose our actions (see Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, 1994, 1996). The transitory social roles are useful for explaining how the emotion responses relate to the society as well as the specific social context. (2004). Zajonc, R. B. These principles are what allow the various elements to be construed coherently as one particular emotion (1982). In R. Harré (Ed.). In R. C. Solomon (Ed.). Most of the theories that will be considered in this section focus on the early part of the emotion process because—according to these theories—the specific emotion that occurs is determined during this part of the process. Another common one is the Opponent-Process theory. Someone trained in reading these tests would look for answers to questions that are associated with increased levels of arousal as potential signs that the respondent may have been dishonest on those answers. The effects of divorce and separation on mental health in a national UK birth cohort. Prescription, explication and the social construction of emotion. (Morsbach & Tyler, 1986). Although the time period during which this selection is believed to have occurred is typically not specified with any precision, the general period begins after the human lineage diverged from that of the great apes, 5 to 8 million years ago, and continues through the appearance of Homo sapiens, which was at least 150,000 years ago (Wood & Collard, 1999; Wood, 1996). More specifically, this theory suggests that emotions occur when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus. VI.110–114), the physicalaspects of the emotions were dealt with as slow or quick movements ofthe vital spirits towards the heart or away from it. This mental state registers the bodily changes, but represents meaningful, albeit simple, information. This feeling occurs “in juxtaposition” to the thoughts and evaluations about the stimulus that triggered the bodily changes in the first place. The other men that received injections of epinephrine were told either that the injection would have no side effects or that it would result in a side effect unrelated to a sympathetic response, such as itching feet or headache. Return to the example of being asked to lecture by your professor. (Eds.). In Averill’s theory, transitory social roles are the roles that individuals adopt when they choose to play a particular part in a situation as it unfolds. Griffiths also points out that the affect programs (recall that, in Griffiths’ parlance, affect program refers to the whole system) have several of the features that Fodor (1983) identified for modular processes. The confederate engaged in scripted displays of euphoric or angry behavior (Schachter & Singer, 1962). Is emotion a natural kind? Most of these theories suggest that this selection occurred in response to problems that arose because of the social environment in which these organisms lived (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990; Cosmides & Tooby, 2000; Nesse, 1990; Keltner et al., 2006). These theories are: The evolutionary theory of emotion; Lazarus theory of emotion (cognitive appraisal theory) James-Lange theory of emotion; Let’s see what some of the world’s brightest minds have to say about why we feel the way we feel. None of these events share any physical feature or property, but all of them can cause the same response. Emotions in the constructivist theory are predictions that construct your experience of the world. (2004b). Evolution is simply “change over generational time” (Brandon, 1990, p. 5). The cognitive appraisal theorist Klaus Scherer claims that each appraisal component directs specific bodily changes, and so his answer to this question is affirmative (2001); Griffiths says that is likely that each affect program emotion has a unique bodily response profile (1997, pp. A trait is an adaptation if it is produced by natural selection. In fact, it might be possible to misattribute arousal to an emotional experience if the circumstances were right (Schachter & Singer, 1962). Ekman, P. (1992). Generally speaking, the emotion process begins with the perception of a stimulus, although in some cases the “stimulus” may be internal, for example, a thought or a memory. The major theories of emotion can be grouped into three main categories: physiological, neurological, and cognitive. 2.  Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli James-Lange Theory of Emotion Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Moreover, this emotion was “the major spiritual failing to which those who should have been dutiful succumbed” and “to feel it at all was a sin” (p. 221). Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. Roseman, I. J., Antoniou A. Emotion theory includes attempts to reduce or assimilate emotions to states such as bodily feelings, beliefs-desire combinations, and evaluative judgements. The somatosensory cortices will respond as if the bodily activity was actually occurring. On the primacy of affect. Judging is the central idea in these theories because it is something that the agent actively does, rather than something that happens to the individual. After about three decades of interdisciplinary research, Barrett argued that we do not understand emotions. (2001). The first emotion listed in each row (e.g., fear, anger, joy) is the basic emotion, the second is the same emotion except at a greater intensity (that is, terror, rage, ecstasy) (1980, 1984). Robert Plutchik claims that there are eight basic emotions, each one is an adaptation, and all eight are found in all organisms (1980, 1984). . This is challenging, since emotions can be analyzed from many different perspectives. Although these emotions are still present in humans today, they may no longer be useful, and may even be counterproductive, as Cosmides and Tooby’s description of the more violent aspects of sexual jealousy illustrates. (1997). Fundamental feelings. This classification creates a psychological category, which Griffiths terms the affect program emotions: surprise, anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust. Cognitive appraisal theories are the cognitive theories that have been developed by psychologists. Mauss and her colleagues studied automatic emotion regulation (AER), which refers to the non-deliberate control of emotions. (1996). In M. Schaller, J. In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli. Some possible examples of emotions that were selected for in early hominids. They performed a clever experiment to test their idea. The feedback from Bill’s body is then juxtaposed with the thought of being tangled up in a losing venture with his brother-in-law. According to Cosmides and Tooby, the emotion of sexual jealousy, deals with these problems in the following ways: Physiological processes are prepared for such things as violence, sperm competition, and the withdrawal of investment; the goal of deterring, injuring, or murdering the rival emerges; the goal of punishing, deterring, or deserting the mate appears; the desire to make oneself more competitively attractive to alternative mates emerges; memory is activated to reanalyze the past; confident assessments of the past are transformed into doubts; the general estimate of the reliability and trustworthiness of the opposite sex  (or indeed everyone) may decline; associated shame programs may be triggered to search for situations in which the individual can publicly demonstrate acts of violence or punishment that work to counteract an (imagined or real) social perception of weakness; and so on (2000, p. 101). The prospects for an evolutionary psychology: Human language and human reasoning. Plutchik, R. (1984). The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression. Table 3. One example, noted by Darwin in The Origin of Species, is the skull sutures in newborns: The sutures in the skulls of young mammals have been advanced as a beautiful adaptation for aiding parturition [that is, live birth], and no doubt they facilitate, or may be indispensable for this act; but as sutures occur in the skulls of young birds and reptiles, which have only to escape from a broken egg, we may infer that this structure has arisen from the laws of growth, and has been taken advantage of in the parturition of the higher animals (p. 218). The further question is whether there is a unique set of bodily changes for each emotion. Emotion regulation describes how people respond to situations and experiences by modifying their emotional experiences and expressions. This led to apopular medical classification of emotions: John of la Rochelle, a Fra… These are some of the examples that Ekman offers: Disgust elicitors share the characteristic of being noxious rather than painful; … fear elicitors share the characteristic of portending harm or pain. Judgment theories are the version of the cognitive position that have been developed by philosophers. The assumption is that most of us would show signs of physiological arousal if we were being dishonest with someone. This empirical research has made theorizing about the emotions an interesting challenge. Nevertheless, this has not prevented the development of theories that explain emotions as adaptations. Evolutionary theorists tend to downplay the influence of thought and learning on emotion, although they acknowledge that both can have an effect. The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state (appetitive, aversive), situational state (motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent), probability (certain, uncertain, unknown), power (strong, weak), and agency (self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused). The neural machinery is but a hyphen between determinate arrangements of matter outside the body and determinate impulses to inhibition or discharge within its organs” (1884, p. 190). In Prinz’s example in Figure 1, there is no mental evaluation or appraisal that the snake is dangerous, rather the perception of the snake triggers the bodily changes. Rather than emotions being something over which you have no control, you can control and influence your emotions. That being said, although the individual chooses the role, Averill stresses that the emotional responses are interpreted by the agent as passive responses to particular situations, not as active choices. An argument for basic emotions. One tentative conclusion that can now be drawn is that it is unlikely that any single theory will prevail anytime soon, especially since not all of these theories are in direct competition with each other. According to Averill, “an emotion is a transitory social role (a socially constituted syndrome) that includes an individual’s appraisal of the situation and that is interpreted as a passion rather than as an action” (1980, p. 312). Researchers have developed several theories of how human emotions arise and are represented in the brain. Social theories explain emotions as the products of cultures and societies. If those beliefs are present, then the emotion will occur; if they are not, then it won’t. In brief, Parkinson describes emotion as: something that emerges directly through the medium of interaction. (1984). This figure illustrates the major assertions of the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer two-factor theories of emotion. Theories of Emotion Regulation. There are t… However, Prinz makes a distinction between what this mental state registers and what it represents. Figure 2. Some of them are compatible, for instance, an evolutionary theory and a theory that describes the emotion process can easily complement each other; Griffiths’ theory of the affect program emotions demonstrates that these two perspectives can be employed in a single theory. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.). According to Roseman’s theory, in the first case, the agency appraisal would most likely be circumstance-caused. Theories of motivation are often separated into content theories and process theories. After receiving these injections, participants waited in a room with someone else they thought was another subject in the research project. In R. C. Solomon (Ed.). (As noted in section one, Griffiths identifies this class of emotions, the affect programs, historically.). In short, content theories explain what motivation is, and process theories describe how motivation occurs. Advocates of the non-cognitive position stress that a theory of emotion should apply to infants and non-human animals, which presumably do not have the cognitive capabilities that are described in the judgment theories or the cognitive appraisal theories. The mental representation of the activity in the body, (D), Damasio calls the feeling. (1980). 3. While these theories acknowledge that in many cases various bodily responses will accompany the emotion, many do not consider the bodily response an integral part of the emotion process. In J. Blacking (Ed.). The thesis of constructionism. Nevertheless, experience it people did. Anger should follow closely the provocation and not endure longer than is needed to correct the situation (typically a few hours or days, at most) (pp. Plutchik’s theory also accounts for more than just these eight emotions. See Zajonc (1980, 1984) for another important defense of the non-cognitive position. It is in light of these factors that an individual evaluates the event. Recent evolutionary theories of emotion also consider emotions to be innate responses to stimuli. Resistance to such approaches is motivated by the claim that emotions possess a sui generis phenomenology. It is also generally agreed that emotions have intentional content, which is to say that they are about something, often the stimulus itself. That is, these theories establish an interval with two axes (for example, positive or negative valence) and include the emotions within that interval. Harré, R. (1986). 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